What is a Omega Network?

By | June 8, 2023

Due to the growth of the number of users over the Internet
and large number of network-based devices, securing the
data over the Internet (storage and transmission) becomes
an important topic. Steganography is one of the main
methods can be used to protect data (e.g. text, image,
video, audio, etc.) from unauthorized access [1,2].
Steganography is an effective technique to secure data
transmission over the Internet. Steganography comes with
new security measures over other traditional security
methods. For example, it does not allow attackers to detect
the existence of secret data that is hidden in a cover
message. Cover messages can be of any type, for example
text, video, images, and audio files. This paper introduces
a new steganography technique to hide text in text
Generally, for data hiding, there are many existing
solutions rely on hiding message bits in Discrete Cosine
Transformation (DCT) coefficients [3[[4], motion
vectors(MVs)[5][6][7], quantization scale[8] or prediction
modes. This technique relies on Omega Networks to hide
text-in-text messages. Unfortunately, these methods have
problems and not efficient enough to hide the secret
messages as they need a suitable cover for the embedding
process, easy detected by the attackers and take long
execution runtime.

Overview of Omega Networks:

Consists of log N stages (where N is the
number of input and output connections). Each stage
contains an interconnection pattern which is used to
connect N input connections with M output connections.
Eq. 1 explains how to connect between input i and output Routing messages in an  is accomplished
by using a simple scheme. Let “s” and “d” be the binary
representations of the source and destination of the
The routing concept in the omega networks goes as
follows. The message traverses the link until reach the first
switching element. The switching element checks the most
significant bits of “s” and “d” in the message. If these bits
are the same, the switching element forwards the message
using pass- through mode. Otherwise, the switching
element forwards the massage using crossover mode. This
routing concept is repeated at every switching stage using
the “next” most significant bit. Traversing log N stages
used all log N bits in the binary representation of “s” and
“d”. Figure 4 shows message routing over an eight-input
from input two (010) to seven (111)
[cross, pass, cross]] and from input six (110) to four (100)
[pass, cross, pass] [15.

Omega Network

Using Omega Networks to Hide Text-intext Messages:

Omega networks was originally introduced to interconnect
between multi-processors via shared-memory modules.
The proposed technique uses only the structure of omega
network to generate new words based on characters of the
original message. Similarly, the technique retrieves the
original message using the steno-message (contains the
secret message) that was generated at the sender’s side.

Embedding Process:

The embedding process is used to hide the secret messages
by generating new stego-messages. English language has
26 alphabetic characters. In order to address all of these
characters, the structure of  must have five
stages to represent 32 input/output characters. The stage #3
is used as starting stage to hide secret messages.
The embedding process will be as follows:
1. Start from stage #3, locate the position of the
2. Move backward by performing shift right rotate
(SRR) to reach the stage  This makes stage
contains two characters.

Omega Network

 Extracting Process:

  1. Divide the secret message into separate words.
  2. Select the first two characters of each word.
  3. Use the structure of and put the
    binary code of the first character in the input port
    and the binary code of the second character in the
    output port
  4. Apply the XOR function between the binary
    digits of the first and second characters to pass
    through the structure of ok until
    reach stage #3 (because the secret character is
    embedded in this stage).

Route through based on the result
of XOR function (zero means pass through, and
one means cross over). The following example
explains the routing through
based on the results of XOR function

Conclusions and Future Work:

The paper proposed a new mechanism to hide text-in-text
messages. The current steganography mechanisms require
selection of suitable stego-cover to hide secret messages.
Nevertheless, this mechanism has the ability to generate
steno-covers based on secret messages. The mechanism
offers different probabilities for embedding process which
gives better security and increases the difficulty of
detecting secret messages by attackers.
The main drawback of the mechanism is finding a suitable
word in the dictionary file. As indicated previously, in
some situations, particularly when failed to locate a
suitable cover word in the dictionary file, the mechanism
generates a meaningless word (suitable cover) to hide the
secret letter. Additionally, the frequent use of the
dictionary file to embed each character which deteriorates
the overall system performance. However, the future work
might go towards finding solutions to the above mentioned

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